EAL and MFL: Teaching through different languages

Freddie Gay

Founder of English Consultancy,  Freddie Gay has been a teacher, teacher trainer for more than 10 years and has worked in a number of countries, including Thailand, the UK, Malaysia but most extensively in Colombia. He has a number of teaching qualifications including a diploma in English language teaching to adults and a Master's degree in English language and applied linguistics from the University of Cambridge and has worked and had a keen interest in evaluation and assessment throughout his career.

Website: ecielts.net Email This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

As you would imagine, all English language lessons focus on the English language as the syllabus. Meanwhile, almost all English language lessons focus exclusively on the English language, without taking into account the learner’s first language, which we call ‘L1’. There is a pedagogical reason for this: the long-standing and ubiquitous idea that it is better to focus exclusively on L1 when learning a language.

Does the following sound familiar?

  • Do not translate.
  • Try and think in English.
  • Use a monolingual dictionary: do not translate.

English teachers have been preaching the above for fifty years. And they are arguably right to do so. Thinking in a second language, some say, is the high-watermark of using it. When we think in our native languages we do so exclusively, without translating or ‘comparing’ with other languages (This of course would depend on the speaker’s exposure to other languages while learning L1. Native speakers might compare languages, out of interest or curiosity, but they do not need to translate for understanding). And so this is something we aim to achieve when learning and using our other languages.

Imagine the following classroom scenario:

Learner: “Teacher, what does this word mean: ‘table’?’’
Teacher: “A table is a flat, horizontal surface supported by vertical legs equally balanced. There are usually four legs, but this can vary.”

This is an exaggeration, of course."Thinking in a second language, some say, is the high-watermark of using it." It would be a teacher of questionable ability that gave a definition like this to a learner of a level who does not know what the English word ‘table’ means, but it can illustrate a point: the teacher has sacrificed common sense, as well as time and effort, to hold to his / her strict belief that no first language should be used in the classroom. English only.

And what if the teacher had simply replied “mesa”? (The learner’s L1 is Spanish. And for the purpose of this exercise we will assume, somewhat strangely, that there were no tables in the classroom for the teacher to simply point at!).

‘Table’, or ‘mesa’, is a concrete noun, something tangible that we experience through our senses: sight, hearing, smell, touch or taste. There are no subjective subtleties of definition here, unless one is abstractly philosophising. Does it matter if we consider an object in two languages while learning one of them? There is, arguably, a comfort, a security in this association.

We can extend this idea of ‘comfort’ from the linguistically-specific to the more humanly general and philosophic. Piasecka states that “One’s sense of identity as an individual is inextricably bound up within one’s native language... If the learner of a second language is encouraged to ignore his/her native language, he/she might well feel his/her identity threatened.” (Hopkins, 1988:18).

But we can take this further. There is a lot to be said for designing a syllabus / lesson with L1 specifically in mind. Let’s take L1 Spanish as our main example, and consider what implications being a native speaker of Spanish has for learning English. We’ll start with pronunciation.

The ‘schwa’ is by far the most common sound in English. It is a vowel sound and can be seen (or heard!) in these highlighted syllables: worker; about; difficult. It is always unstressed and it does not exist in the Spanish language. I repeat: the most common sound in the English language does not exist in the Spanish language. Hence the common pronunciation of, to take one of the examples above, ‘worker’ as ‘workair’. There is a very strong argument for paying particular attention to the schwa sound in designing a syllabus for native Spanish-speaker learners. Learners who do have the schwa in their native tongue, however, such as French speakers, don’t need to focus so much on this – it will come more naturally – and so tailoring lessons thusly will be very helpful.

English and Spanish share roots. Both have Latin as a ‘parent’, only Spanish more purely: English is more mixed in its influences. This shared origin means that the word ‘difficult’ in English, for example, sounds very similar to its Spanish equivalent, ‘dificil’. And there are many other English-Spanish cognates, ‘accident-accidente’, ‘bicycle’-bicicleta’, ‘interesting-interesante’, being just a few.

There are also false cognates, or ‘false friends’: similar words that actually have very different meaning. Take the English word ‘embarrassed’, for example. In Spanish, ‘embarazada’ means ‘pregnant’! Confusion with these cognates could be very dangerous!

When designing a lesson or syllabus, we can take into"In Spanish, ‘embarazada’ means ’pregnant’!" account the above when we decide how to focus on vocabulary and what particular vocabulary to focus on, chapter by chapter. This ‘tailored’ approach has the benefits of just that: ‘tailor-made’ English learning. Like a well-cut suit.

And there are implications for grammar, of course. Many. Let’s think about how we conjugate verbs for the second and third person singulars. In Spanish, we generally add, or at least incorporate, an ‘s’ to express the second person singular. Thus, ‘tu tienes’, ‘tu quieres’, ‘tu me gustas’. The third-person Spanish singular can be defined by an absence of an ‘s’. Hence the above in the third person are: ‘el tiene’, ‘ella quiere’ and ‘el me gusta’.

In English, however, we generally use an ‘s’ to express the third person. Hence ‘he has’, ‘she wants’, ‘he needs’. As a result, native Spanish-speaking learners not expressing the ‘s’ in the English third-person singular is probably the most common mistake they make, in my experience. And it is such an important, fundamental tense, and thus worthy of ‘tailored’ syllabus focus. We therefore might want to give this tense more focus and practice at elementary stage (and indeed other levels) than we might with learners that are native speakers of other languages.

There is much significance for error correction, of course. Error correction is not always spontaneous, and should be predicted from experience of a specific type of learner and built into the planning stage of a lesson or syllabus. If we know what areas of grammar Spanish speakers commonly have problems with, we can plan our lessons more slickly and precisely as a result.

What would you prefer: a tailor-made suit or dress, one that fits your unique shape and colouring, or one ‘off-the-peg’, categorised down to a number? It is the same with languages education. It can be argued that we can never fully remove the L1 from the learning environment of L2, so why try and force it? Instead, we can embrace this influence and use it to a precise advantage.

Co-written by Jon Porter.

How do you cater to different learner’s lingual needs? Share your tips below.

Register for free to continue reading
Registration is a free and easy way to support us.
When you register, you'll join a grassroots community where you can:
• Enjoy unlimited access to articles
• Get recommendations tailored to your interests
• Attend virtual events with our leading contributors
Register Now

Latest stories

  • How to handle stress while teaching in a foreign country
    How to handle stress while teaching in a foreign country

    Teaching English in a foreign country is likely to be one of the most demanding experiences you'll ever have. It entails relocating to a new country, relocating to a new home, and beginning a new career, all of which are stressful in and of themselves, but now you're doing it all at once. And you'll have to converse in a strange language you may not understand.

  • Is Learning Fun for You, Teacher?
    Is Learning Fun for You, Teacher?

    Over the weekend, my family of five went to an Orlando theme park, and I decided we should really enjoy ourselves by purchasing an Unlimited Quick Queue pass. It was so worth the money! We rode every ride in the park at least twice, but one ride required us to ride down a rapidly flowing river, which quenched us with water. It was incredible that my two-year-old was laughing as well. We rode the Infinity Falls ride four times in one day—BEST DAY EVER for FAMILY FUN in the Sun! The entire experience was epic, full of energizing emotions and, most importantly, lots of smiles. What made this ride so cool was that the whole family could experience it together, the motions were on point, and the water was the icing on the cake. It had been a while since I had that type of fun, and I will never forget it.

  • Free recycling-themed resources for KS1 and KS2
    Free recycling-themed resources for KS1 and KS2

    The Action Pack is back for the start of the brand new school year, just in time for Recycle Week 2021 on 20 - 26 September, to empower pupils to make the world a better and more sustainable place. The free recycling-themed resources are designed for KS1 and KS2 and cover the topics of Art, English, PSHE, Science and Maths and have been created to easily fit into day-to-day lesson planning.

  • Inspire your pupils with Emma Raducanu
    Inspire your pupils with Emma Raducanu

    Following the exceptional performance from British breakthrough star Emma Raducanu, who captured her first Grand Slam at the US Open recently, Emmamania is already inspiring pupils aged 4 - 11 to get more involved in tennis - and LTA Youth, the flagship
    programme from The LTA, the governing body of tennis in Britain, has teachers across the country covered.

  • 5 ways to boost your school's eSafety
    5 ways to boost your school's eSafety

    eSafety is a term that constantly comes up in school communities, and with good reason. Students across the world are engaging with technology in ways that have never been seen before. This article addresses 5 beginning tips to help you boost your school’s eSafety. 

  • Tackling inequality in EdTech
    Tackling inequality in EdTech

    We have all been devastated by this pandemic that has swept the world in a matter of weeks. Schools have rapidly had to change the way they operate and be available for key workers' children. The inequalities that have long existed in communities and schools are now being amplified by the virus.

  • EdTech review & The Curriculum Lab
    EdTech review & The Curriculum Lab

    The world is catching up with a truth that we’ve championed at Learning Ladders for the last 5 years - that children’s learning outcomes are greatly improved by teachers, parents and learners working in partnership. 

  • Reducing primary to secondary transition stress
    Reducing primary to secondary transition stress

    As school leaders grapple with the near impossible mission to start bringing more students into schools from 1st June, there are hundreds of thousands of Year 6 pupils thinking anxiously about their move to secondary school.

  • Generation Z and online tutoring: natural bedfellows?
    Generation Z and online tutoring: natural bedfellows?

    The K-12 online tutoring market is booming around the world, with recent research estimating it to grow by 12% per year over the next five years, a USD $60bn increase. By breaking down geographic barriers and moving beyond the limits of local teaching expertise, online tutoring platforms are an especially valuable tool for those looking to supplement their studies in the developing world, and students globally are increasingly signing up to online tuition early on in their secondary education schooling. 

  • Employable young people or human robots?
    Employable young people or human robots?

    STEM skills have been a major focus in education for over a decade and more young people are taking science, technology, engineering, and maths subjects at university than ever before, according to statistics published by UCAS. The downside of this is that the UK is now facing a soft skills crisis and the modern world will also require children to develop strong social skills as the workplaces are transformed by technology. 

In order to make our website better for you, we use cookies!

Some firefox users may experience missing content, to fix this, click the shield in the top left and "disable tracking protection"